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Pakistan also has several deserts, in Punjab and Sind.
Pakistan is also home to Taxila, the oldest known university in the world.
Although the modern nation of Pakistan was but fifty-three years old in 2000, it has territorial areas and tribal populations whose histories date back many centuries; thus Pakistan has both an ancient and a relatively new identity. Pakistan is in South Asia and is 339,697 square miles (879,815 square kilometers) in area.
It was created from what had been the northwest side of India.
In Swat Valley, which was once the cradle of Buddhism, Muslim conquerors fought battles and residents claim to be descendants of soldiers of Alexander the Great.
While Urdu and English are prevalent throughout Pakistan, a number of other languages are spoken in different valleys and areas.
The city of Islamabad, which is centrally located in the country, was officially named the capital of Pakistan in 1961, and construction began on government buildings in addition to others. In addition to modern government buildings it also features a wide variety of modern hotels, an international airport, and the nearby famous ancient city of Rawalpindi.
In addition to being known for a number of mountains, including K-2, which is the second-highest mountain in world, Pakistan also has several lakes and rivers, including the Indus River, which is 1,800 miles (2,896 kilometers) long.
As part of India's independence from Great Britain in 1947, a partition took part of their land and created Pakistan as a separate Islamic nation.
It is estimated that approximately 95 percent of the population are Muslim, but members of several minority religions live there, including some Hindus, Christians, Parsis, Sikhs, and Buddhists.