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As early as 1935, the baselines have been defined in the 1935 Constitution. 9522) stated that the purpose of the law is mainly to amend the existing baselines act and to ‘define the archipelagic baselines of the Philippines’. RA 9522 reduces the Philippine maritime territory, and logically, the reach of the Philippine state’s sovereign power, in violation of Article 1 of the 1987 Constitution” and 2) “RA 9522 opens the country’s waters landward of the baselines to maritime passage by all vessels and aircrafts, undermining Philippine sovereignty and national security, contravening the country’s nuclear-free policy, and damaging marine resources, in violation of relevant constitutional provisions.” Justice Antonio T.
The Philippines and China who are claimants to the South China seas are among the 165 countries that have ratified the UNCLOS.Christianity, more particularly Catholicism, is practiced by more than 80% of the population. The Protestant religion was introduced by American missionaries.Aglipay , or the Philippine Independent Church, and the Iglesia ni Kristo are two Filipino independent churches or religious organizations.This comprises the National Territory of the Philippines. 9522, approved on March 10, 2000 amended both laws and defined the archipelagic baselines as “Regime of Islands” (section 2) This definition is consistent with Art.121 of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), where the Philippines took an active part. The petitioners filed the case in their capacities as citizens of the Philippines, taxpayers and legislators.Article I of the 1987 Constitution provides that the "national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein and all other territories which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction." Laws enacted by Congress defined the baselines of the territorial sea of the Philippine archipelago. Rodolfo Severino, in his article “ Clarifying the New Philippines Baseline Law ” (Republic Act No. Noteworthy to mention are the two grounds invoked by the petitioners in questioning the constitutionality of the law:”1).